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Applications
(users should run their own tests to determine the suitability of Epoxols for their specific applications)

Epoxidized vegetable oils like Epoxol® 9-5, Epoxidized Linseed Oil, Epoxol® 7-4 Epoxidized Soybean Oil and other oils and epoxidized fatty acids and esters can be used in several applications. An important advantage of these products is that they are materials produced using natural and renewable raw materials including flaxseed and soybeans.
 

Plasticizer and Stabilizer

Epoxol epoxides function as both plasticizers and stabilizers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and other halogenuated resins. The high molecular weight and structure make these epoxides compatible in the various resign systems and provide flexibility to the otherwise rigid plastics. These epoxides function as secondary plasticizers when used in conjunction with phthalate based PVC plasticizers systems. Importantly these natural based epoxides can be modified to function as primary plasticizers replacing phthalates. The stabilizer properties of Epoxol epoxides are derived mainly from their acid scavenging properties.
 
Acid Scavenging

Epoxol epoxides are efficient scavengers of halogen, carboxylic and mineral acids and therefore assist in preventing many damaging effects these acids can have on product quality, effectiveness, storage life and on processing equipment.

The effectiveness of Epoxol® 9-5 as an acid scavenger can be demonstrated by the American Oil Chemists Society Test No. Cd 9-57 for OXIRANE OXYGEN. In this test, the oxirane compound is titrated to an end point with HBr. This is a quantitive test and visually demonstrates the effectiveness of Epoxol® 9-5 as an Acid Scavenger.
Products containing halogens tend to decompose liberating halogen acids particularly in the presence of other materials, water and/or organic compounds. In the absence of a stabilizer such as Epoxol, these acids catalyze further decomposition continuing at an increasing rate. The free acids thus formed attack metal containers and processing equipment , corroding and contaminating the product with metal salts. These impurities often cause color or odors to develop and can decrease product quality and storage life. Further, free acids can directly attack the product resulting in development of color, odor and separation through unbalancing the emulsion system.

When possible, Epoxol should be added to the acid forming media as early as possible in the manufacturing process, to give better product protection and protection of process equipment from acid attack.

The following is a partial list of applications where the acid scavenging and stabilizing benefits could be used:

Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
Chlorinated Waxes
Chlorinated Resins
Halogenated Refrigerants
Halogenated Flame Proofing Agents
Fungicides & Insecticides
Soil Fumigants
Transformer Oils
Lubricating & Cutting Oils
Aerosols



In Aerosols


Aerosols employing fluorinated propellants liberate acid on hydrolysis. Even in minute quantities, this acid is highly undesirable in most aerosols, including perfumes, shaving creams, paints and insecticides. Product degradation due to metal contaminants, development of colors and odors, emulsion instability and container corrosion are often unwanted indicators of free acid development and can usually be minimized or eliminated by the addition of small amounts of Epoxol® 7-4. Adequate protection can generally be obtained by the addition of 1/2 to 2% (based on the weight of the propellant) in most aerosol formulations.

Insecticides


Halogenated hydrocarbons such as D.D.T., malathion, benzene hydrochloride and other types of insecticides often require stabilizers. Decomposition through dehalogenation results in greatly reduced insecticidal activity and is catalyzed by the presence of either free acids or free alkaline materials. A neutral scavenger such as Epoxol® 7-4, with neutral reaction products, has a stabilizing effect through removal of free acids. It helps maintain a neutral product and thus decreases the rate of decomposition. Being nonionic and neutral Epoxol® 7-4 has less chance of interfering with the emulsion stability of any of the various emulsifier types. The scavenging and stabilizing benefits if Epoxol® 7-4 can be particularly beneficial in insecticides employing emulsion systems or dust solutions.

Insecticides and other  highly chlorinated materials may require higher percentages of stabilizers than aerosols and evaluations should be made employing levels of Epoxol® 7-4 from 2-4%.

Epoxy Resins


In some formulas Epoxides are compatible with the Bisphenol A epoxies or the cycloaliphatic epoxies typically used in epoxy resins and castings. Actually, 20% to 40% of these standard epoxy materials can be replaced by Epoxol in order to reduce cost and viscosity of the resin system without materially affecting tensile  strength, hardness or Gahimer temperature/humidity test results. At the same time, electrical properties, heat weight loss, and water absorption characteristics are maintained while thermal shock resistance is improved.

Non Crosslinked Esters

Vicinal hydroxy esters can be prepared by the reaction of organic acids and Epoxols. When monobasic acids are used, non-crosslinked esters are formed at some, or all, of the reactive oxirane groups. The amount of reaction can be controlled by the stoichiometry of the acid to oxirane groups. When a functionally reactive acid, such as acrylic or methacrylic, is used, the resulting esters can be reactive oligomers that will undergo further polymerization reactions in U.V. cured inks and coatings, as comonomers with vinyl-chloride or vinyl acetate, or in anerobic adhesive applications.
U.V. Cured Epoxy Coatings

Epoxy based radiation-cured coatings for metal and foil are another area where use of Epoxol may be beneficial and cost saving. From about 20% to 40% of the glycidyl ether or cycloaliphatic epoxies used in epoxy coatings can be replaced by Epoxol without appreciable effect on tack time. After the oven post cure necessary for those type of coatings, the physical characteristics of the coating may be as good or better using Epoxol as they are using the more expensive epoxies.

Chemical Intermediates

The functionality and numerous reactive sides on Epoxol Epoxides make them valuable as chemical intermediates. The many types of reactions possible as described in the previous section provide an opportunity to modify chemical requirements.